lunes, 30 de mayo de 2011

Identifying and nonidentifying relative clauses


AN IDENTIFYING RELATIVE CLAUSE  — THAT / WHICH                

An identifying (restrictive) relative clause adds information or narrows the noun to a specific one, group or lot.  The clause helps by telling us which one, where or when. The pronoun which is used when it is preceded by a preposition.  NO COMMAS are used to set off the clause. The pronoun that is more commonly used.
               
The water that I drank last night contained sodium. (identifies the specific one)

The car that runs off of a lithium-ion battery is surprisingly fast.

The problem about which I wrote is the subject of today's lecture.

The prison that is located in San Francisco Bay was a depressing place to work.



A NONIDENTIFYING RELATIVE CLAUSE — WHICH

A non-identifying (non-restrictive) relative clause adds extra information about a noun already identified by other means, for example, by name, by shared knowledge or context. The clause is just adding extra or interesting information. That is not used in a nonidentifying clause. COMMAS are used before and after the clause. 
               
The Evian water, which I drank last night, contained sodium. (adds extra info)

The Tesla, which runs off of a lithium-ion battery, is surprisingly fast.

The Lost Generation , about which I wrote, is the subject of today's lecture.

Alcatraz Prison, which is located in San Francisco Bay, was a depressing place to work.



source: http://www.grammar-quizzes.com/clauses-5.html

lunes, 2 de mayo de 2011

FIPS State Codes for the States


 
FIPS State Codes for the States and the District of Columbia

Name
FIPS
State
Numeric
Code
FIPS
State
Alpha
Code
Name
FIPS
State
Numeric
Code
FIPS
State
Alpha
Code
Alabama
01
AL
Missouri
29
MO
Alaska
02
AK
Montana
30
MT
Arizona
04
AZ
Nebraska
31
NE
Arkansas
05
AR
Nevada
32
NV
California
06
CA
New Hampshire
33
NH
Colorado
08
CO
New Jersey
34
NJ
Connecticut
09
CT
New Mexico
35
NM
Delaware
10
DE
New York
36
NY
District of
Columbia
11
DC
North Carolina
37
NC
Florida
12
FL
North Dakota
38
ND
Georgia
13
GA
Ohio
39
OH



Oklahoma
40
OK



Oregon
41
OR
Hawaii
15
HI
Pennsylvania
42
PA
Idaho
16
ID
Rhode Island
44
RI
Illinois
17
IL
South Carolina
45
SC
Indiana
18
IN
South Dakota
46
SD
Iowa
19
IA
Tennessee
47
TN
Kansas
20
KS
Texas
48
TX
Kentucky
21
KY
Utah
49
UT
Louisiana
22
LA
Vermont
50
VT
Maine
23
ME
Virginia
51
VA
Maryland
24
MD
Washington
53
WA
Massachusetts
25
MA
West Virginia
54
WV
Michigan
26
MI
Wisconsin
55
WI
Minnesota
27
MN
Wyoming
56
WY
Mississippi
28
MS




Table 2
FIPS State Codes for the Outlying Areas of the United States,
the Freely Associated States, and Trust Territory
Area Name
FIPS
State
Numeric
Code
FIPS
State
Numeric
Code
Status
American Samoa
60
AS
1
Federated States of Micronesia
64
FM
3
Guam
66
GU
1
Marshall Islands
68
MH
3
Northern Mariana Islands
69
MP
1
Palau
70
PW
4
Puerto Rico
72
PR
1
U.S. Minor Outlying Islands
74
UM
2
Virgin Islands of the U.S.
78
VI
1



Status:
1.  Under U.S. sovereignty.
2.  An aggregation of nine U.S. territories: Baker Island,
Howland
Island, Jarvis Island, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Midway
Islands,
Navassa Island. Palmyra Atoll. and Wake Island. Each territory
is
assigned a FIPS County Code in FIPS PUB 6-3, and may be
individually
identified through a combination of the FIPS State Code (74 or
UM) and
the appropriate FIPS County Code.
3.  A Compact of Free Association with the United States of
America is
now in full force. It was announced by Presidential proclamation
on
November 3, 1986.
4.  Remains a trust territory.

source: http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/fip5-2.htm